Tag Archives: scientific notebooks

You’ll Never Believe What NASA’s New Discoveries Reveal

New reports from NASA, including a recent announcement, show just how far science is taking us in the search for life. Evidence of new ocean worlds and water on planets thought previously to be devoid of life are demonstrating just how far we’ve come, but what do these ocean worlds really tell us? Grab your scientific notebooks and tuck into this incredible information; this is some exciting stuff!

NASA’s New Discoveries RevealAlien Oceans

Having lived on Earth for all of our lives (with the exception of astronauts), even the best scientists are prone to holding an Earth-centric view of nature itself. When we think of oceans, most of us think of Earth’s oceans—teeming with life and many right for swimming, too, depending on where you are in the world.

Unfortunately, that’s probably not the case for most of the oceans discovered by Hubble. But the presence of water does increase the chances of a planet developing into a hospitable world down the road—and that’s great news for us here on Earth.

A Concentrated Effort

While the Hubble telescope is certainly expanding our ability to investigate exoplanets from here on Earth, the recent Cassini mission also contributed to NASA’s new data. Cassini, a satellite orbiting Saturn, has spent the last 30 years gathering information about the planet. Though NASA’s details were scant, they pointed to the fact that something discovered on Saturn may allow scientists to detect life on other planets at a more reliable rate.

Europa May Be the Answer

Of additional interest, and currently on NASA’s radar, is Europa, a small exoplanet orbiting Jupiter. New telescope data is revealing evidence of water molecules and evaporation, a sign that Europa may contain water spouts—and, thus, oceans. Scientists suspect that Europa could even contain three times the water of Earth. Kevin Costner’s Waterworld just might be real (albeit not in the way the movie represented).

Technically, Europa is an ice planet, so the idea of life may seem pretty far-fetched. But what’s often missed is the fact that the tiny planet’s ocean makes contact with geothermal elements that heat up the water and provide the planet with warmth. In the right conditions, that geothermal activity could very well create the perfect recipe for life to develop.

Learn new discoveries from NASAUpcoming Clipper Mission

With evidence rolling out of Europa, and scientists chomping at the bit to explore it, a clipper mission in 2020 is the inevitable next step. Scientists hope that, by getting a closer look and probing the planet directly, they’ll be able to identify whether or not their suspicions are accurate.

New Information May Change Space Exploration

NASA also hinted at additional discoveries, mostly of exoplanets throughout the solar system. While these planets weren’t directly identified, a NASA representative did say that what they’ve found could change space exploration forever. They also hinted that some of the features they may have found on these exoplanets could point to life—life that’s similar in nature to the life found here on Earth.

Furiously scribbling down details in your trusty research notebook? You’re not alone. Scientists all across the world are just as excited as you are about the findings. While SNCO can’t discover new life on your behalf, we can make it easier to do the work you already love. Contact us today at 800-537-3028 to inquire about our research supplies.

The Science Behind Bees and Emotions

Scientists have long been interested in bees. Bees are an integral part of the success of farming and plant growth around the world. This means that there have been thousands of laboratory research notebooks used to record and analyze bee behavior. A new study has been performed which seems to show that bees experience emotions and display a great deal of intelligence.

Bees and Emotions

Colors and Treats

As part of this study bees were trained using a sugar water reward to choose between a blue flower tunnel and a green flower tunnel. Blue had a treat and green did not. When bees were presented with both flower colors, they either did not enter the tunnel at all or they took quite a while to enter. If the bees were given a tasty sugar treat before being presented with the tunnel that featured both colors they entered a little more quickly.

So, it is one thing to say that bees can be trained to know which colorful blooms will present them with the sweetest reward, but there is no conclusive evidence that these results are based on emotions. More than likely it is a bit of intelligence and the goal of finding the best treats.

Avoidance Behavior

One aspect of the study was to simulate an attack from a predator. After this simulated attack, bees that had not been given a sip of sugar water beforehand took a longer time to begin foraging again. So, does this mean that sugar boosts the bees’ confidence or helps them overcome fear of a predator more quickly?  Again, there are no conclusive results as of yet, but, as humans, we know that a sugar rush is almost like a high and can lead to more outgoing behavior, risk taking, and a general feeling of happiness.


Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is often considered a happy hormone. When the dopamine was blocked on the bees in the study, the sugar treat no longer had any effect. The bees’ behaviors were no longer about seeking a reward or basking in a sugar buzz euphoria. The exact science involved in what makes bees behave the way they do, and whether those behaviors can be altered in order to further improve farming and pollination techniques, is still up in the air.

Clint Perry of Queen Mary University of London states, “We normally think of an emotion as the internal awareness of a feeling, but there’s more to it than that. Physical changes to your body and shifts in your behavior accompany sensations of happiness or sadness. Many of these things actually cause the subjective feelings we have; those are all necessary parts of emotion.”

While humans may respond optimistically to most situations when they are feeling the happiest, the result of this study is that bees tend to be optimistic or responsive to food triggers. Of course, like the rest of nature, food makes us all a bit happier!  As for whether bees experience emotions, scientists better get back to the drawing board and purchase several more scientific notebooks for future studies. To learn more about the intersection of science and wildlife, follow the Scientific Notebook Company blog today.

Avoidance Behavior

2016 Nobel Prize Winners Cream of the Scientific Crop

If you’ve ever found yourself wondering what happened to that quiet guy from high school who was always carrying around a scientific notebook, you may want to check out the latest Nobel Prize Winners. While these geniuses may not have been in your social crowd in school, their deep thoughts and future plans might have been the reason. These bright individuals could be well on their way to becoming a Nobel Prize holder. These are the cream of the scientific crop who have been recognized in 2016 by being awarded a Nobel Prize.

Scientific Crop


The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane, and J. Michael Kosterlitz for “theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter.” While lay people may not understand what that means, it is a significant advancement in the area of physics.


For the design and synthesis of molecular machines, the Nobel Prize committee has recognized Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stroddart, and Bernard L. Feringa in 2016. Molecular studies are something that is ongoing and which will affect many different areas of chemistry, medicine, and health studies for the future.


Yoshinori Ohsumi has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of mechanisms for autophagy.


The official Nobel Peace Prize for 2016 has been awarded to Juan Manuel Santos for his efforts to bring his country’s more than 50 year long civil war to an end.  The Nobel Peace Prize is the most well-known of the Nobel Prizes awarded each year, and is always given to someone who has made significant strides in achieving or working toward peace.


Many people aren’t aware that there is a Nobel Prize for Literature. Those of us who keep tabs on the people who have reached us over the years were thrilled to find out that Bob Dylan has been awarded this prestigious recognition in 2016. Mr. Dylan was recognized “for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition.” Folk music fans from the 60s are very familiar with Bob Dylan, and it seems that his musical contributions through the years are recognized in today’s multicultural and diverse world as well.

The Nobel Prize committee is made up of a group of people who are able to see and recognize the value of the discoveries and ideas of the people in the scientific community and throughout the world in positions of influence. The decision to honor someone with one of these awards is not taken lightly. The person must have truly done something or discovered something that benefits humankind. The categories for Nobel Prizes cover nearly all aspects of science, humanity, and world matters.

When you look around at your coworkers and contemporaries, do you ever take notice of those who seem to be completely immersed in bound notebooks or studying obscure topics? Those are the people who often find themselves being considered for Nobel Prizes. The people who develop new ideas, discover amazing facts and reactions, and create a better world for the rest of us.

Scientific notebooks

Science Explains Why Giraffes Have Such Long Necks

What comes to mind when you think of a giraffe? The first thing you likely think of about a giraffe is its long neck. Did you know that a newborn giraffe calf is born with a height of about 2 meters? That’s a big baby! About 4 years ago, scientists whipped out their research notebooks, and began comparing and contrasting the giraffe with its close cousin, the okapi, to help determine just why giraffes have such long necks.

Giraffes Have Such Long Necks

The Okapi is a horse sized herbivore that is related to the giraffe but does not have the long neck or the super heart that giraffes have. What’s the story with the heart, and how does it relate to the long neck? A giraffe’s heart needs to pump blood all the way up to its brain; that requires an enlarged left ventricle and higher blood pressure. With such a difference in height and organ strength, how is the Okapi compared to the giraffe effectively?

According to scientists, these physical differences, and the fact that both animals are the only living members of the Giraffidae family, make the okapi a perfect screen to identify what is unique about a giraffe.


So, why do giraffes have such long necks? Based on evolutionary theory and in depth studies of the genes and DNA in giraffes and okapi, it seems that we now know the answer to this question. A small number of genes, 70 to be exact, over the past 11 or 12 million years have evolved to create the animal with the long neck that we know and love. As always, evolution seems to involve genetics adapting to environments.

Because the giraffe needs to be tall and have a long neck in order to move quickly, spot danger approaching, and find the tender leaves it needs to feed on, their DNA and genomes have adapted to make this a part of their molecular blueprint. The okapi, while similar in many areas, have not developed these same 70 genomes that make their cousins taller, and which allow them to survive with a super strong heart. Once it is all broken down, the okapi may have more in common with a horse or zebra than its cousin, the giraffe.

Not Just Zoo Exhibits

For many people in the world, the only way we will get to experience the amazing height and beauty of the giraffe is to visit a zoo. These graceful and unique mammals are much more than simply a zoo exhibit. They are the key to several scientific studies, and the answer to many questions raised about evolution, familial genetics, and adaptation. Highly detailed comparisons, tests, and observances recorded in scientific research notebooks will help scientists continue to understand and share the mysteries of the regal giraffe with the world.

So many young people simply see a unique animal without putting any thought into why or how that animal came to be. Thanks to scientists, even laypeople are now able to understand different aspects of genetics and evolution. These studies may awaken interest in young people and encourage them to pursue a scientific future. This is why every bit of scientific research is important, and will make a difference to the future of civilization and how we relate to and adapt along with the other species that we share the world with.


How Earthquakes Might Trigger Faraway Volcanoes

There are several schools of thought about the relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes. Scientists have long thought that there is a connection between the occurrence of high magnitude earthquakes and distant volcanic eruptions. Using scientific notebook charting and recording of various events, these teams are coming closer and closer to determining the relation and likelihood of such a situation.

For many, the thought of an earthquake occurring in one month and causing a volcanic erupting several months later miles away seems farfetched, but for many scientists in several different organizations this is a line of thought that deserves intense research.


Mount Aso in Japan

Mount Aso, located in Japan, began emitting plumes of smoke indicating a small eruption just two days after a 6.2 magnitude earthquake 42 kilometers away. Long before this earthquake, Mount Aso had experienced much larger eruptions, but is it possible that this small eruption was triggered by the earthquake? Scientists say yes, but there is still a great deal of research that must be performed to accurately predict eruptions based on earthquakes.

How It Works

Essentially, earthquakes and volcanoes tend to occur in similar time frames simply because both occur at the level of tectonic plates. Often individual eruptions are preceded by minuscule tremors directly underneath. This is considered to be movement of the magma through underground chambers.

This “earthquake” action is an early warning signal of volcanic eruption that has been monitored by geoscientists, but is not what one would call a major earthquake. However, the presence of seismic activity far from the volcanic center being a preceding event is one that scientists are still working on.

Many times throughout history there have been large earthquakes followed by small eruptions at a location far from the epicenter of the earthquake. When you consider the intricate layering and movements of tectonic plates all around the Earth, it is entirely possible that a large disruption in one area would cause a corresponding eruption in another area.

Volcanologists have proposed that the sloshing of the bubbly magma underneath the volcanoes caused by faraway large seismic activity is what creates the eruption. This theory makes perfect sense; however, scientists have as yet been unable to accurately use this theory to predict eruptions, despite using laboratory research, magma chambers, and earthquake shockwaves.

In situations like this, nature is in charge, and scientists are simply able to record and analyze activity in order to seek a resolution. While knowing of a relationship between earthquakes and volcanic eruptions would help in predicting volcanic events, it would not enable anyone to prevent either from happening.

Thanks to detailed scientific notebooks and shared research, scientists are able to record and analyze happenings all over the world and determine which seismic events correlate with which volcanic eruptions. Because the earthquakes cause deep tremors in the plates that hold the Earth together, it may take several days or even months for those tremors to travel and slosh the magma underneath a volcano. This makes researching and finding correlations more of a challenge for scientists in the future.

In time, as more research is done related to this topic, scientists will have more concrete findings about the correlation between volcanoes and earthquakes.


Scientists Search for 13 People to Help Solve Genetic Mutation Mystery

For all of the claims that 13 is an unlucky number, that doesn’t always appear to be the case. It’s been used to introduce horror movies and create panic in those who are superstitious, but today, it’s in more than one laboratory research notebook belonging to a number of scientists who study genetics. That’s because 13 people were found to have genetic anomalies, but show no symptoms of 584 serious childhood diseases.

Scientists would like to be able to do more research, but that may not be possible. Another oddity about the situation is that in order to treat those who are unhealthy, scientists find that they need to look to those who are healthy.

Scientific notebooks

Genetic Disease

Some diseases are transmitted though things like saliva and contact with other bodily fluids. Others are genetic, which means they have the potential to be handed down from one generation to the next. The issue becomes obvious when several generations experience the same symptoms of a certain disease. While there are treatments for many of them, not all of the diseases can be treated or cured.

That’s why scientists started to look at things on the genetic level. Why treat symptoms when you can prevent the disease itself? Better yet, why create something to treat a disease when the human body has already developed a sort of buffer for it?

Mutations with Responses

Not all people who have received the genetic material that causes a specific disease will end up with the disease. Scientists want to know how frequently that happens and what makes it happen at all. That’s why 30 scientists have been publishing their findings on the matter in the Nature Biotechnology Journal. Right now, those scientists would like to speak with just 13 subjects.

Using Existing Data

These scientists turned to genetic data that was already gathered, rather than gathering the data in their own lab. It’s a technique that is often employed in an effort to save time and money on research projects. They gathered the material with permission from the donors through several agencies that perform genetic testing.

The focus was on childhood diseases. The genetic information used belonged to adults. In this way, scientists could separate the people who had experienced symptoms from the people who had not, since the individuals were already beyond childhood.

Specifically, the search was on for genetic evidence of 874 genes that could indicate 584 medical conditions. The data was gathered from more than 500,000 genetic samples. Of those samples, 13 people demonstrated the genetic conditions for 8 diseases, but never showed any symptoms of having had the diseases in question.

There are strict laws that govern privacy as it relates to any kind of research and testing. Because the scientists had permission to use the material, but not permission to contact anyone who participated in the study, they are currently unable to move forward. Though their hands may itch to use their archival pens and document more information about these genetic events, they simply aren’t able to just yet.

However, if and when that becomes possible, they may be able to unravel the genetic secret to preventing the onset of a disease even when it exists within the genetic code.


The Science Behind the Earth’s Airglow

If you were to look in almost any laboratory research notebook that was used in the first year of a NASA employee’s term of employment, you might read terms like “airglow” and “Rayleigh scattering.” That’s because, like the average citizen, even new NASA employees aren’t always aware that airglow even exists, much less knows about the impact of Rayleigh scattering. As for the notebook, who wouldn’t be taking notes concerning their experience as a first year employee of NASA?

Scientific notebook

Airglow Defined

Some describe it as the Earth’s own radiance. It is a luminosity given off by the atmosphere of Earth. The glow is due to various factors, like the development of molecular oxygen and the reflection of sunlight off of the Earth’s surface. At about 60 miles away from the surface of the Earth, airglow can be seen in its brightest form.

Rayleigh Scattering

Rayleigh scattering has a lot to do with the type of airglow that can be perceived. For example, airglow is more sunlight dominant during periods of time that include muted Rayleigh scattering in the lower atmosphere. As sunlight hits the Earth’s atmosphere, it “scatters” off of molecules. This produces the effect known as Rayleigh scattering and is the reason that the sky looks blue as people look up at it. The process involves wavelength dependence that results in shortened wavelengths that produce this effect.

Types of Airglow

There are three different types of airglow. In the past, it wasn’t easy to see this phenomenon, but the VIIRS instrument has made it possible. Stationed on the Suomi-NPP satellite, it is able to observe Earth because of light that is both emitted and reflected from the planet. It is so powerful that it can see clouds over the Earth at night based on the luminescence produced by airglow. This level of detail can help scientists develop more information about the atmosphere itself, as well as its relation to the surrounding universe. The different types of airglow can help further the process.

Dayglow: As you might imagine, this type of airglow is heavily reliant on sunlight. Referred to as “sunlight dominant,” this is the type of airglow seen as Rayleigh scattering is muted in the lower atmosphere. It also involves resonance and the fluorescent process.

Twilightglow: This type of airglow does not illuminate the lower atmosphere. In fact, only the upper atmosphere is illuminated.

Nightglow: This type of airglow doesn’t have the same brightness of dayglow. At the same time, it is bright enough to outshine the starlight that is found in the night sky. This particular luminescence occurs because of solar radiation. When this radiation interacts with molecules in the upper atmosphere, the result is nightglow.

Without the VIIRS instrument, the world wouldn’t have the images that it now has of airglow. Whether scientists are adding this information to a scientific notebook or not, it is fascinating to understand how light is created in our atmosphere, to the extent that even the color of the sky itself is affected.

Lab notebook

Science Beginning to Link Climate Change with Extreme Weather

If bad weather seems more extreme than you remember, you might not be wrong. Droughts are becoming more extreme, and hurricanes more damaging, but many have long denied its cause: climate change. The argument is over, though, because science can now link climate change to extreme weather. Take out your research notebook and take notes about what science has to say about the phenomena.

Previously No Conclusive Proof

Throughout the course of its history, climate change has been a widely debated topic. Then came an onslaught of extreme weather. Scientists theorized there was a connection, but conclusive proof was elusive. Scientists observed weather phenomena and reviewed data for years, to no avail, but recently the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine  has been able to make some connections which have been compiled in three reports the group has issued. These reports are part of a five report series requested by Congress and entitled “America’s Climate Choices.”


What We Know

The reports from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine outline that climate change is real, and that it is caused predominantly by human activities; however, the causal evidence does not show that every extreme weather event can be causally linked to climate change. This doesn’t mean all extreme weather won’t one day be linked to climate change, but, at the moment, science only allows us a glimpse into how our society influences our climate and the world around us.

Currently we know that there are clear links between heat waves, snow storms, heavy rain and droughts, and climate change. For complicated weather events like hurricanes and typhoons, the link isn’t so clear. Many factors need to be evaluated in these events, and our lack of long-term data prevents accurate statistical analysis. What scientists can say is that the intensity and frequency of some types of weather events can be affected by human actions.

Minimizing Impact

Science may not have all the proof needed to show that humans have caused increases in frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, but certainly the evidence demonstrates the need for change in human activities. With that in mind, it begs the question, what can be done? The answers are relatively simple, though the implementation is not.


First, a reduction in greenhouse gases is necessary to stabilize carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Next, adaptations should be made to cities and the way we live. The rise of sea levels, powerful hurricanes, and other events are inevitable, and changes should be made to withstand these.

Last, research and analysis must continue so these weather events can be predicted and disaster averted when possible. This research and analysis may also eventually lead to a resolution which will negate all of the human effects on climate change.

Now is the time for scientists to test, experiment, and observe, both in the lab and out of the lab. Picture scientists and students, young and old, grabbing their lab notebooks and dedicating their lives to making the world a safer place. If the best minds concentrate on getting over this hurdle, everyone on planet earth will benefit.

To learn more about scientific notebooks for every use, from cleanrooms to classrooms, contact us at 1-800-537-3028.

Did the Curiosity Rover Take Pictures of Alien Life on Mars?

As NASA releases more and more pictures of the Martian surface taken by the Mars rover “Curiosity,” experts and amateurs alike have pored over the photos in hopes of learning more about the red planet. One man, however, claims that he has spotted the most shocking possible discovery of all while examining the Mars rover pictures: a black, scorpion-like creature wandering the Martian surface.

Scott C. Warring, the founder and editor of the popular UFO site UFO Sightings Daily, says that upon examining one of the photos released by NASA under the name “Sol 1100,” he has spotted what appears to be a living creature with a black exoskeleton, “much like a desert beetle or a scorpion would have.” Warring claims that when the picture is examined closely, the unnamed creature can be seen holding a clawed arm up in the air.

In addition to the scorpion creature, Warring also says that he has identified what appears to be the roof of a building, which he hypothesizes is a hut for small alien women he claims to have spotted in previous pictures.

Life on Mars?

Despite Warring’s insistence that the pictures show obvious signs of life on Mars (which he also claims the government and NASA are attempting to hide from the public), the blurriness of the enhanced photos offered as proof on UFO Sightings Daily can hardly be called definitive evidence of life on the red planet. Nor would Warring’s claims of proving the existence of Martian life be the first time official photos were said to contain proof of alien civilization. The famous “Martian Face,” which was first spotted in 1976 by the Viking 1 Orbiter, was said by some to be an alien monument built on the planet’s surface. NASA, on the other hand, claimed that the “face” was an optical illusion; later images captured by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Global Surveyor revealed the landmark captured in the original photos to be a faceless mountain formation.

Another famous example of “proof” of extraterrestrial life, the “Martian canals,” was also partially the result of an optical illusion. In 1870, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli spotted what appeared to be long, straight channels in the Martian surface, which he called “canali,” an Italian word for “channels.” Further observation of the Martian surface in early 20th century and beyond proved that the canali were merely a trick of the light, but not before many latched on to the idea that the Martian surface was covered in alien-built aqueducts (the Italian word canali having been erroneously translated into English as “canals,” implying that the channels Schiaparelli claimed to have seen were something that had been constructed, rather than naturally occurring waterways).

While NASA has yet to verify Warring’s claims of identifying alien life, it has announced that Curiosity has found evidence indicating that molecular “building blocks” forming the basis of life can be found in the Martian soil.

Keep track of your own scientific discoveries in one of Scientific Notebook Company’s high quality scientific notebooks. For more information on SNC and our products, contact us today at 800-537-3028.


  1. http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/weird-news/alien-scorpion-found-surface-mars-6441881
  2. http://www.inquisitr.com/2415723/ufo-expert-nasa-mars-rover-found-scorpion-like-living-creature-photo-proves-life-on-mars/

The Best Paying Jobs for Those Majoring in Science or Engineering

Selecting a college major is an important part of defining what type of career you want after you graduate. Fields with a high demand for employees, but a lack of qualified applicants, often command higher starting salaries and significantly higher earnings once a person reaches mid-career levels. In recent years there has been a shortage of graduates pursuing careers in science and engineering. As a result, those graduating with a bachelor’s degree in a science or engineering field are being offered initial salaries starting at $50,000 per year or higher.

For students going on to obtain a master’s or doctorate in a particular specialization, not only are their starting salaries further increased, but this also affords graduates more flexibility and job opportunities. In addition, students at the master or doctorate levels are able to major and minor in a more diverse range of fields. Even though the monetary rewards and post-graduate earnings are attractive, one thing students have to seriously consider is whether a career in science or engineering is for them. The last thing you want to do is spend your college years pursuing a career field you know you are not going to enjoy.

If science or engineering sounds appealing, some of the top salary potential majors include:

– Computer Science

– Petroleum Engineering

– Mechanical Engineering

– Actuarial Mathematics

– Physics

– Nuclear Engineering

– Computer Engineering

– Chemical Engineering

– Electrical Engineering

– Aerospace Engineering

Besides these fields, there has been a recent surge in demand for pharmaceutical technicians, environmental scientists, laboratory technicians, and veterinarians.

Choosing a Career Specialization in Science or Engineering

Long before you make up your mind to specialize in one specific science or engineering career field, you have to complete a list of general education requirements and core classes. The core classes help expose you to a wide variety of topics and subjects to help you determine which specialized field you want to pursue.

Some students, at the bachelor level, decide to major in one field, and minor in another, after they have completed their core class and general education requirements. More ambitious students select two closely related, yet different fields, and work on a double major. There are benefits of having a minor or a second major. First, you gain exposure to specialization in two different career fields. Next, your employability after graduation is increased, because you have a more diverse educational background.

Regardless of whether you decide to pursue a degree in just one specific field, or more than one, is entirely up to you. However, essential items you need throughout your studies and your career are engineering and scientific notebooks. These notebooks have been designed for use in science and engineering fields. They include features for patent protection, configurations for research projects, and other laboratory or project needs to protect your ideas. You can order high-quality laboratory, science, engineering, and research notebooks from Scientific Notebook Company by phoning 800-537-3028 now.